Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that causes your blood sugar levels to increase. The severity of diabetes can vary quite a bit: Some people get the disease well under control, and in others it leads to other health problems over time. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or the teenage years. This disease is a result of damage to the pancreas that leaves it producing either very little insulin or none at all. 

Things are different in type 2 diabetes, where insulin is made by the pancreas but the body’s cells gradually lose the ability to absorb and use the insulin. In the past, type 2 diabetes was often referred to as “adult-onset” diabetes because it is commonly diagnosed later in life. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes. About 90% of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors

Various factors can increase the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes:
1. Being overweight and not getting enough physical exercise.
2. Smoking.
3. A low-fiber, high-fat and sugary diet.
4. Certain medications that affect the body’s sugar metabolism.
5. Genetic factors: Type 2 diabetes is more common in some families.

Effects

People who have type 2 diabetes are at greater risk of developing the following health problems:
1. Cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) diseases.
2. Damage to the eyes, nerves and kidneys.
3. Diabetic foot.

Treatment

A number of factors influence which treatment approach for type 2 diabetes is suitable: They include other health problems, age, life circumstances and personal goals.

1. Lifestyle changes: Losing weight and getting more exercise can lower your blood sugar levels. Quitting smoking helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) disease.

2. Medication: Many people depend on medication to regulate their blood sugar levels. Some take tablets, and others inject insulin.

3. Surgery: If very overweight (obese) people find it hard to lose weight, surgical approaches such as stomach stapling may be an option.

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